IELTS Azərbaycan| Xaricdə Təhsil | Dil Kursları

IELTS Azərbaycan| Xaricdə Təhsil | Dil Kursları

IELTS Azərbaycan| Xaricdə Təhsil | Dil Kursları

IELTS Azərbaycan| Xaricdə Təhsil | Dil Kursları

Why is it important?

Of all the skills and techniques you need to do well in the IELTS test, vocabulary is definitely one of the most important. IELTS vocabulary preparation can be overwhelming, but this page will help you with everything you need to know before doing your test.

It makes up 25% of your total mark in the Writing and Speaking tests. Not only this but did you know that the Listening and Reading tests are really vocabulary tests too? Take a look at the table below.

The table shows words in the question from an official IELTS reading test on the left and words in the text on the right. It demonstrates how many synonyms are used and therefore, needed to answer the question. All IELTS Reading and Listening tests are like this. In short, if you don’t have a wide-ranging vocabulary you won’t be able to do well on the Listening or Reading tests.

Below we will talk about how you can improve your IELTS vocabulary.

 

 

ielts-synonyms-1 - IELTS Vocabulary

The Wrong Way to Learn IELTS Vocabulary

The worst way to learn new words is to either learn long lists of academic words or to simply read the dictionary. Why? You are not learning the words in context. That means that you are not learning the words within a sentence and paragraph and you will not know how they are supposed to be used properly.

Lots of my students in the past have downloaded long lists of words and thought that they could simply learn them by memorising them. This is the single worst thing you can do to improve your vocabulary. The result was always the same: they would try to use these new words in a sentence and get them completely wrong. IELTS examiners know when you are not using a word correctly and will give you a lower mark if you make lots of mistakes, even if you do use ‘complicated’ words.

 

The Correct Way to Learn IELTS Vocabulary

The only way that you can learn new words and then use them properly is if you learn them from context, or in other words, from real sources of information, not lists.

Below is a 5 step plan to help you increase your range of vocabulary.

  1. Pick a book, TV show, radio show, podcast or magazine you are interested in. Don’t pick something boring because you will not stick to the plan and you will easily get distracted. People learn more effectively when they enjoy what they are doing.
  2. Buy a special notebook. It doesn’t have to be expensive, just something that you can write in every day.
  3. Read or listen to whatever you have chosen and pick out 15 words you don’t understand. Listen or read and try to guess what they mean from the context. (This step is very important because it will help you remember them.) Note the 15 new words down in your notebook.
  4. Look up the new words in a dictionary. You can do this online. Beside each word note the meaning, an example sentence or two, collocations, synonyms, antonyms, and pronunciation. You can also draw pictures; whatever will help you remember the word.
  5. Review the new words after one week, two weeks and then one month. Also, practice using the new words in a sentence.

If you do this five days a week, after a month you will have nearly 100 new words in your notebook. After 6 months you will have at least 500 new words.

The human mind can only effectively remember around 15 new words in a foreign language per day, so any more and you will not learn them properly and make mistakes. This method is the single most powerful way I know for learning vocabulary and lots of my students have been successful with it.

Common vocabulary in IELTS Listening

Published on February 19, 2018

When doing the listening section of the IELTS test, having a wide ranging vocabulary that you know how to spell is crucial to getting a good score. Here is some common vocabulary broken down by section of the listening test.

Section 1

Basic vocabulary that you would have studied when first learning English is included in section 1 of the listening test.

1. Days of the week: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday

Quick Tip: Wednesday is commonly misspelled.

2. Months of the year: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December

Quick Tip: The first ‘r’ in February is often forgotten.

3. Shapes: circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cylinder

4. Transportation: automobile, truck, tractor, subway, aircraft, train

5. Colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, white, black, brown

Quick Tip: Colour spelled with a ‘u’ is the Canadian/British spelling. In the US, it is spelled ‘color’ without a ‘u’. Both are correct and a matter of preference.

6. Verbs: suggest, develop, borrow, persuade, discuss, review, concentrate, believe, crash

Quick Tip: Sometimes verbs are conjugated for gender, tense, etc. The difference could give you an incorrect answer.

7. Adjectives: beautiful, necessary, fantastic, comfortable, convenient, wonderful, terrible, temporary, permanent, knowledgeable, various

Numbers, times, and currencies also commonly appear in section 1 of the listening test. Recording the corresponding number or symbol is suggested because this will help eliminate the possibility of spelling the word incorrectly.

For example, thirty dollars is the same as $30 on the listening test. Also, six o’clock and 6:00 are the same as well. Finally, ten thousand and 10,000 are also both correct. Writing the number or symbol allows you to feel confident in your answer.

Section 2

In section 2 of the IELTS listening test, there are a variety of question types. For example, some questions involve maps so there is vocabulary that may be helpful to know.

1. Rooms in buildings: kitchen, bathroom, bedroom, living room, dining room, den, library, gymnasium, cafeteria, classroom, waiting room

2. Place markers: street, road, avenue, lane, drive, court

There is some vocabulary you should be listening for, but may not have to write down when doing a map question in section 2, which will allow you to follow the map more easily.

3. Directions: north, south, east, west, up, down, right, left, straight, across from, between, beside, diagonal, corner

Section 3

Being familiar with academic related vocabulary may be helpful for section 3.

1. School terms: presentation, project, teamwork, pairs, organization, outline, proofreading, experiment, reference, lecture, assessment, tutor, attendance, specialist, knowledge, faculty, bachelor’s, schedule, management, leadership, questionnaire, statistic, percentage, laboratory

Quick Tip: North Americans pronounce ‘laboratory’ in three syllables: lab-bra-tory. British english speakers pronounce the same word using four syllables: lab-or-a-tory. 

2. Subjects in school: Mathematics, Science, English, Physical Education, Art, Music

3. Subjects in university: Commerce, Biology, Psychology, Engineering, Marketing, Sociology, Physics, Chemistry, History, Geography, Architecture, Law, Philosophy, Economics

Section 4

The vocabulary used is still words that are common knowledge even though section 4 is the most difficult section. There could be a range of topics as section 4 is also based on academics. Here is some vocabulary that is frequently used.

1. Health: vegetarian, leisure, disease, vitamin, protein, carbohydrates, exercise, treatment

2. Animals and their habitat: mammals, reptile, primates, predators, prey, mountain, jungle, forest, island, pond, river, stream

3. Continents and Countries: North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, Antarctica, Australia, Oceania, England, Canada, China, United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico, Switzerland

4. Environment: global warming, disaster, earthquake, tornado, blizzard, hurricane, pollution, temperature, drought

5. Government: politics, senator, mayor, laws, regulations, senate, president, society

Quick Tip: The word ‘society’ is one of the most commonly misspelled words on the IELTS test.

6. General: appointment, cooperation, employment, government, exhibition, occupation, aluminum, century, decade, millennium, individual, creativity, guarantee, satellite, opportunity, license, frequently, calendar, different

Quick Tip:The words ‘government’ and ‘different’ are two of the most commonly misspelled words on the IELTS test. Also, ‘aluminum’ is pronounced with four syllables in North American english: a-lu-min-num. It is pronounced with five syllables in British english: al-u-min-i-um.

To help you feel confident in the listening section as well as the rest of the IELTS test, try to be knowledgeable on a variety of topics and have a good range of vocabulary to discuss those topics.

Education Vocabulary

 

Graduate


To complete a first university degree successfully
 


graduated from the University of Salford in 2009.

My graduation ceremony was in 2009.
 

Curriculum
The group of subjects studied in a school, college, etc.
 

Schools must ensure they have an excellent curriculum.
 
Qualification
An official record showing that you have finished a training course or have the necessary skills, etc
 


Good qualifications are really important if you want to get a well-paid job.

I am qualified to teach English.
 

Coursework
Regular work done by students as part of a course, but assessed independently of formal exams. 
 

The coursework on my degree was really difficult.
 
Co-educational
When male and female students are taught together in the same school or college rather than separately
 

Co-educational schools prepare students for their future better than single-sex schools.
 
Cheat
To behave in a dishonest way in order to get what you want
 


He did really well in his exams but he cheated. He copied from a friend.

Cheating on exams is not recommended.
 

Literacy
The ability to read and write.
 


Literacy rates have declined considerably in Western countries over the last decade.

However, most children are literate.
 

Illiterate
Unable to read and write
 

Many children in the poorest countries are illiterate.
 
Primary (elementary) Education
First years of formal education from around age 5 to 11. 
 

A good primary education is crucial for a child's development.
 
Secondary Education
Education during the time as a teenager.
 

I loved it at my secondary school as I had so many friends.
 
Higher (tertiary) Education
Non-compulsory education after finishing school, such as university, as well as vocational education and training at colleges.
 

60% of children now go into higher education after they finish school.
 
Concentrate
To direct your attention or your efforts towards a particular activity, subject or problem
 


It is difficult to concentrate on my work if there is a lot of noise.

I keep losing concentration due to the noise.

 

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Crime Vocabulary

 

Legislation

 

A law or set of laws suggested by a government and made official by a parliament.

 

 

There needs to be changes to crime-related legislation.

 

Deter

 

To make someone less enthusiastic about doing something by threatening bad results if they do it.

 

 

Tougher prison sentences may be a deterrent toother would-be offenders.

 

Offender

 

Someone who is guilty of a crime.

 

 

Prison should not be used for first-time offenders.

 

Punish

 

To cause someone who has done something wrong or committed a crime to suffer, by hurting them, forcing them to pay money, sending them to prison, etc

 

 

Those responsible for serious crimes must bepunished.

Prevention

 

When you stop something from happening or stop someone from doing something.

 

 

The government should focus on the prevention of crime rather than introducing harsher prison sentences.

 

Commit

 

To do something illegal or something that is considered wrong.

 

 

People who commit serious crimes should be given lengthy (long) prison sentences.

 

Criminal

 

A person who commits a crime.

 

 

Criminals who commit violent crimes should not be given probation.

 

Probation

 

A period of time when a criminal must behave well and not commit any more crimes in order to avoid being sent to prison.

 

 

Probation is a good way to reduce prison overcrowding, but it must only be used for those who have committed minor crimes.

 

Rehabilitate

 

To return someone or something to a good or healthy condition, state or way of living.

 

 

It is important to rehabilitate criminals while they are in prison otherwise they may re-offend (commit a crime again) when they are released from prison.

 

Guilt

 

Having done something wrong or committed a crime.

 

If jurors (the members of a jury) find a defendantguilty, then that person must be punished.

 

Jury

 

A group of people chosen to decide in a court of law if someone is guilty of a crime or not.

 

To ensure fairness in a criminal trial, there must be a jury.

Convict

 

To decide officially in a court of law that someone is guilty of a crime.

 

He has been convicted of arson (starting a fire intentionally to damage something) two times now.

 

Fine

 

Being made to pay money for breaking the law.

 

Motorists should be given a fine if they are caught speeding.

Imprisonment

 

Being put in prison.

 

 

Murderers are usually given life imprisonment.

 

Community Service

 

Work that people do to help other people without payment, and which young criminals whose crime was not serious enough for them to be put in prison are sometimes ordered to do.

 

Community service is a good alternative to prison for minor offences.

Justice

 

Fairness in the way people are dealt with.

 

 

Those who commit assaults must be imprisoned because the victims want justice.

 

Victim

 

Someone who has suffered because of the actions of someone else.

 

 

The victims of crime often need help and support to recover from their bad experience.

 

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Fitness, Diet and Health Vocabulary

 

Overweight

 

Fat

 

 

70% of the population is now overweight according to official figures.

 

Obesity

 

Extrememly fat or overweight.

 

 

Obesity is now a real problem for teenagers.

Teenagers who are obese are often bullied at school.

 

Eating Disorder

 

A mental illness in which people eat far too little or far too much food and are unhappy with their bodies.

 

 

Bulimia and anorexia are types of eating disorder. Both are becoming more common.

 

Nutrients

 

Any substance which plants or animals need in order to live and grow.

 

 

A healthy diet should consist of all the essential nutrients.

This meal is very nutritious.

 

Diet

 

The food and drink usually eaten or drunk by a person or group.

OR

When someone eats less food, or only particular types of food, because they want to become thinner or for medical reasons.

 

 

It is important to have a healthy diet. People must eat plenty of fruit and vegetables.

I've been on a diet now for four weeks, and I've lost about one kilo.

 

Overeating

 

Eating more than your body needs.

 

 

There is evidence that overeating is one of the main causes of obesity..

 

Ingredients

 

A food that is used with other foods in the preparation of a particular dish.

 

 

The ingredients of the dish include nuts, raisins, and parsley.

 

Allergy

 

A condition that makes a person become ill or develop skin or breathing problems because they have eaten certain foods or been near certain substances.

 

 

Allergies are becoming more common, and this could be connected to diet.

If I eat nuts, I have an allergic reaction. I cannot breath properly.

 

Additive

 

A substance which is added to food in order to improve its taste or appearance or to preserve it.

 

 

This food is full of additives so I'm not going to eat it.

 

Prevent

 

To stop something from happening.

 

Lots of exercise will prevent a heart attack.

The prevention of health problems should be encouraged by the government. For example, they could ban the advertising of fast food to children.

 

Variety

 

Often changing and being different.

 

When preparing meals, you need to think about variety and taste as well as nutritional value.

Appetite

 

When you want to eat food.

 

All that exercise has given me an appetite.

 

Fibre

 

A substance in foods such as fruit, vegetables and brown bread, which travels through the body as waste and helps the contents of the bowels to pass through the body easily.

 

A diet that is high in fibre is important in order to maintain a healthy body.

Regular

 

Happening or doing something often.

 

 

Regular physical exercise is important for good health.

 

Vitamins

 

Any of a group of natural substances which are necessary in small amounts for the growth and good health of the body.

 

Many people take vitamin supplements these days in order to keep their body healthy.

Diabetes

 

A disease in which the body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood.

 

 

Diabetes is becoming much more prevalent ( = common or widespread) amongst children.

 

 

Health

 

The condition of the body and the degree to which it is free from illness, or the state of being well.

 

 

Fruit has several health benefits.

Elderly people can have many health problems.

The health care in the country is deteriorating ( = getting worse).

There may be health risks from eating too much red meat.

Health education is very important if we are to prevent illness and reduce medical costs.

Sweden has one of the best health systems in the world.

_____________________________________________

The population of the country is in good health.

Lack of exercise can lead to poor health.

_____________________________________________

He has a very healthy diet.

I have a healthy appetite.

 

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Work Vocabulary

 

Employee

 

Someone who is paid to work for someone else.

 

 

The company has several hundred employees.

 

Employer

 

A person or organization that employs people.

 

 

Employers monitor their employees very carefully these days.

 

Employment

 

When someone is paid to work for a company or organization.

 

 

Due to the recession, there are thousands of people looking for employment.

I was employed in the company for several years.

 

Unemployment

 

Not working.

 

 

Levels of unemployment in the economy have been rapidly increasing.

He has been unemployed for 6 months now.

Commute

 

To make the same journey regularly between work and home

 

 

It is taking longer for people to commute to work because of traffic problems.

Commuting to work everyday by bus is tiring.

 

Occupation

 

Formal way to say 'job'.

 

 

What is your occupation?

 

Career

 

Working life or a particular job during one's working life that gets better in terms of salary and position.

 

 

He is retired now but he had an amazing career ( = succesful working life).

He hopes to have a career in the army

 

Profession

 

Any type of work which needs special training or a particular skill, often one which is respected because it involves a high level of education.

 

 

The teaching profession is not as good as it used to be because salaries have decreased.

 

Salary / Wages

 

Money paid each month to an employee for their work.

 

 

Public sector salaries are not keeping up with inflation.

He receives a good wage because he works for a prestigious company.

 

Public Sector

 

Businesses and industries that are owned or controlled by the government.

 

You get a good pension if you work for the public sector, but the salary is not always so good.

 

Private Sector

 

Businesses and industries that are privately owned.

 

Most graduates hope to work in the private sector when they finish university as there are more opportunities and the pay is better than the public sector.

Retire

 

To stop working because of old age or ill health.

 

The retirement age in most countries is 65.

He had to retire early due to ill health.

 

Flexitime

 

Working a fixed number of hours but having flexibility with start and finish times.

 

They have introduced flexitime at my work place so I usually start at 10am now and finish at 6pm.

Resign / Quit

 

To leave a job.

 

 

He resigned from his job yesterday.

Don't quit your job unless you have another one to start.

 

Fire / Sack /

Dismiss

 

To remove someone from their job, especially because they have done something wrong

 

He was fired / sacked / dismissed because he was late for work every day.

Vacancy

 

A job position that is not filled and so is available.

 

 

I spoke to the company and they said they had several vacancies.

 

Overtime

 

Working more than your contracted hours.

 

 

The employees often work overtime but they are not given extra money so it is not fair.

 

Shift

 

The time worked in a job that is not normal hours.

 

 

She is a nurse so she has to work in shifts. One week she does the morning shift, and then the next week she will do the night shift.

Shift work can be very tiring.

 

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Information Technology Vocabulary

Access


The right to use or look at something
 


Everybody should have access to the internet.

 

Advanced
Modern and well developed
 


Technological advances have brought many benefits to the world.

Japan has very advanced technology (not 'high' technology!).
 

Automation
To make a process in a factory or office operate by machines or computers, in order to reduce the amount of work done by humans and the time taken to do the work
 


The automation of production processes has led to increased unemployment.

Many production processes these days are automated.
 

Connection
When something joins or is joined to something else, or the part or process that makes this possible
 


Most people are connected to the internet these days.

Having a connection to the internet is important.

I often have problems connecting to the internet.
 

Communication
The act of communicating with people
 


Email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and faster.

Communicating with people by email is very easy.
 

Device
An object or machine which has been invented for a particular purpose
 

It is important to have some kind of communication device such as a mobile telephone or the internet.
 
Innovation
A new idea or method
 


Smart phones are the latest innovation in computer technology.

Steve Jobs was a great innovator.
 

Invention
Something which has never been made before, or the process of creating something which has never been made before
 


The world changed rapidly after the invention ofthe telephone.

Many useful devices have been invented over the last few decades.
 

Machine
A piece of equipment with several moving parts which uses power to do a particular type of work
 


Factories now make use of machines to do a lot of the work humans used to do.

Machinery does most of the work in factories.
 

Up-to-date
Modern, recent, or containing the latest information
 


Teenagers think it is important to have the most up-to-date technology.
 

User-friendly
If something, especially something related to a computer, is user-friendly, it is simple for people to use
 

Modern mobile phones such as the i-phone are very user-friendly.

 

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Environment Vocabulary

 

The

Environment

 

The air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live.

 

 

More must be done to protect the environmentfrom pollution.

Environmental problems are becoming very severe in many countries.

 

Climate

 

The weather conditions generally present in an area or over a long period.

 

 

The mediteranean region tends to have a mild climate over the winter.

 

Climate

Change

 

The change in global climate patterns which appeared from the mid to late 20th century onwards, caused mainly by the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

 

 

The climate around the world has been changingrapidly over the last decade.

Climate Change is one of the most serious problems that the world is facing today.

 

Carbon

Dioxide

(CO2)

 

The gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out.

 

 

The burning of fossil fuels releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which leads to global warming.

Trees absorb carbon dioxide.

 

Fossil

Fuels

 

A natural fuel such as coal, gas, or oil formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.

 

 

Some people do not believe that human's reliance on fossil fuels is to blame for global warming.

 

Global

Warming

 

A gradual rise in the world's temperatures caused by polluting gases such as carbon dioxide which are collecting in the air around the Earth and preventing heat escaping into space.

 

 

Deforestation is contributing to global warmingbecause trees absorb carbon dioxide.

 

Deforestation

 

Cutting down and clearing areas of forest.

 

 

Deforestation is destroying animal habitats.

 

Habitat

 

The natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives.

 

 

With so many areas of woodland being cut down, a lot of wildlife is losing its natural habitat.

 

Ecosystem

 

All the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment.

 

 

The world has a delicately balanced ecosystem, and pollution can damange this.

The marine (= related to the seaecosystem was baldy damaged by the oil spill..

 

Biodiversity

 

The variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat, a high level of which is usually considered to be important and desirable.

 

The rich and diverse biodiversity of our planet must be protected.

 

Contamination

 

To make something less pure by exposing it to poisonous or polluting substances.

 

The water has been contaminated by the release of toxic chemicals into the river.

The water supply is being tested for contamination.
 

Toxic /

Toxin

 

Poisonous / A poisonous substance

 

The dumping (= disposing of something in a careless way) of toxic waste has contaminated the area.

Leaded fuel from cars releases toxins into the air which can affect the brain.

 

Waste

 

A material or substance which is eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required after the completion of a process.

 

The Green Party opposes any kind of nuclear waste being dumped at sea.

Emission

 

The production and discharge of something.

 

 

Emissions from car exhausts cause pollution around cities.

Carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced.

 

Erosion

 

To graually reduce or destroy.

 

Over-farming causes soil erosion.

Drought

 

A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water.

 

 

The severe drought this year has led to the loss of many lives.

 

Pollution

 

Damage caused to water, air, land etc. by harmful substances or waste.

 

 

Environmental pollution must be a top priority of governments.

The air around the factory is very polluted.

 

 

Sustainable

 

Causing little or no damage to the environment and therefore able to continue for a long time.

 

 

Countries need to promote sustainabledevelopment in order to protect the environment from further damage.

 

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Science Vocabulary

 

Placebo

 

A drug which has no physical effects, used in pharmaceutical tests to compare the physical effects of taking a real drug from its psychological effects.

 

 

She was given a placebo, not the real drug, but she said she felt much better.

 

Placebo

Effect

 

The placebo effect is when someone's condition improves because they think they are taking medicine.

 

 

She was given a placebo, not the real drug, but she said she felt much better- that's the placebo effect.

 

A side

effect

 

An extra, usually bad, occurrence caused by taking a drug.

 

 

Drugs should not be tested on animals because there are many possible side effects.

Much of today's modern medicine has side effects. I prefer alternative therapies.

 

 

Proof

 

 

To show a particular result after a period of time.

 

 

The amount of evidence that scientists now have proves that climate change is being caused by humans.

We now have proof that climate change is caused by human activity.

 

Experiment

 

 

A test done in order to learn something or to find out whether something works or is true

 

 

Experimenting on animals is necessary in order to discover if new drugs are dangerous or not.

Scientists are conducting experiments to test the effectiveness of the new drug.

 

 

 

Gene

 

 

A part of the DNA in a cell which contains information in a special pattern received by each animal or plant from its parents, and which controls its physical development, behaviour, etc

 

 

Genes are an important factor in personaility development.

The doctors think his illness was genetic. It came from his mother because she had the same illness when she was young.

 

Genetic

Engineering /

Modification

 

Changing the structure of the genes of a living thing in order to make it healthier or stronger or more useful to humans.

 

 

There is evidence that genetically modifiedfood is harmful to humans.

Some plants have been genetically engineeredto be resistant to herbicides.

 

 

Genetically

Modified

Organisms

(GMOs)

 

Plants, animals or micro organisms that have changed through genetic engineering.

 

 

Most commercialised GMO crop plants are insect resistant and/or herbicide tolerant.

 

Clone

 

A plant or animal which has the same genes as the original from which it was produced

 

 

The first animal to be cloned was Dolly the sheep.

I believe that cloning humans is unethical.

 

Geoengineering

 

The deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, in order to try and control global warming

 

Some scientists believe geoengineering is the only way to reduce the warming of the climate.

Controlling the weather by geoengineering is a possible solution to climate change, but it is controversial.

 

Cyber

 

A prefix for things related to computers, especially the internet.

 

Cyberbulling via social media such as Facebook has become a major problem.

cybercafe is a place where you can buy drinks and use computers at the same time.
 

High-Tech /

Hi-Tech

 

Using the most advanced and developed machines and methods.

 

Japan is a very high-tech country. Everyone has all the latest electronic gadgets.

 

Theory

 

A formal statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or of ideas which are suggested to explain a fact or event or, more generally, an opinion or explanation

 

 

There are two opposing theories on the causes of climate change - one says it is caused by humans, the other believe it is a natural cycle.

 

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The Arts Vocabulary

 

The Arts

 

Art forms created by humans, divided into visual, literary, and performing.

 

 

The govenment should not waste money on the arts. This should be spent on public services instead.

 

 

Culture

 

The systems of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion that are shared by a relatively large group of people.

 

 

The culture of a country is reflected in its art.

Cultural differences can cause problems if you do business in another country.

 

Creative

 

Relating to or involving the imagination or original ideas, especially in the production of an artistic work.

 

 

He is an incredibly creative person - he's written many books and plays and he can paint as well.

 

Classical

 

Music that is considered to be part of a long especially formal tradition and to be of lasting value.

 

 

I prefer classical music such as Mozart and Bach to modern day pop music.

 

Musical

 

A play or film in which part of the story is sung to music (noun).

OR

A skill in or great liking for music (adjective)

 

 

"The Phantom of the Opera" is one of the best musicals that I have ever seen.

Everyone in the family can play an instrument - they are very musical.

 

Opera

 

An art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and music, usually in a theatre.

 

 

Opera is not very popular amongst young people these days.

 

Theatre

 

A building, room, or outside structure with rows of seats, each row usually higher than the one in front, from which people can watch a performance or other activity.

 

 

My hometown does not have any theatres. There are many in the capital though.

 

Performance

 

A show or action involving the entertaining of other people by dancing, singing, acting, or playing music.

 

 

His performance as MacBeth was amazing.

There will be a performace of a famous play at the Lyceum Theatre tonight.

 

Festival

 

An organized set of special events, such as musical, art or film performances.

 

 

The Cannes Film festival has some great movies this year.

The local council organizes a music festival in my town every year.

 

Exhibition

 

An event at which objects such as paintings are shown to the public.

 

There will be an exhibition at the weekend to show all of his latest paintings.

His paintings were exhibited at the local art gallary over the weekend.

 

Sculpture

 

The art of making two- or three-dimensional representative or abstract forms, especially by carving stone or wood.

 

The museum has many life-sized sculptures of past Kings and Queens of England.

Abstract

 

A type of painting, drawing, or sculpture that uses shapes, lines, and colour in a way that does not try to represent the appearance of people or things.

 

Jackson Pollock is one of the most famous abtractartists. He famous for dripping and splattering paint onto his canvas

 

Display

 

A collection of objects or pictures arranged for people to look at, or a performance or show for people to watch (= being shown).

 

 

Jackson Pollock's most famous paintings are on display at the Tate Modern Art Gallery in London for 10 days.

Inspired

 

To be filled with the urge or ability to do or feel something, especially to do something creative.

 

 

Shakespears plays have inspired many young people to take up writing and acting.

His method of acting really inspires me.

 

Artefact

 

An object that is made by a person, such as a tool or a decoration, especially one that is of historical interest.

 

The museam in town has many artefacts that were found in the local area. Most are tools from the Stone Age.

Choreograph

 

Compose the sequence of steps and moves for a ballet or other performance of dance.

 

 

Their dance routines had been carefully choreographed so there would be no mistakes.

 

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Children and the Family Vocabulary

Nuclear family


Family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children


 


Most households in the Western world tend to be nuclear families.


 

Extended family
Larger than the nuclear family - consisting of aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household.
 

If you live with your extended family they can help to look after the children. 
 
Single-parent
A parent, not living with a spouse or partner, who has most of the day-to-day responsibilities in raising the child or children. 
 


Some people believe that it is not good for children to grow up in a single-parent household.


 

Relatives
Group of people related by blood or marriage 
 

Relatives, such as grandparents, can play an important role in helping to raise children. 
 
Siblings
Brothers or sisters
 

I have three siblings – one brother and two sisters.
 
Adolescent
A young person who is developing into an adult
 


Children can sometimes cause more problems for their parents when they become adolescents.

 

Dependants
Someone who depends on you for financial support, such as a child or family member who does not work
 


My dependants will be well-looked after when I die as I have left a lot of money to them in my will.


 

Authoritarian
Demanding that people obey completely and refusing to allow them freedom to act as they wish
 

His father was very authoritarian and he used to scare me quite a lot. 
 
Strict
Strongly limiting someone's freedom to behave as they wish, or likely to severely punish someone if they do not obey. 
 

Some parents believe that they have to be verystrict with their children to ensure they behave well.
 
Birth control / Contraception
(the use of) any of various methods intended to prevent a woman becoming pregnant
 

One of the reasons for the falling number of births in developing countries is birth control. Medical clinics often distribute free contraception.
 
Birth Rate
The number of babies born over a given time
 


The birth rate has been falling in many countries.


 

Bring Up / Upbringing
To care for a child until he or she is an adult, often giving him or her particular beliefs
 


Children should be brought up to respect their parents.

I had a very good upbringing.

 

Raise
To take ​care of a ​person (or an ​animal or ​plant) until they are ​completely ​grown 
 

Her parents raised her very well as she is now a very kind and considerate young woman. 
 
Child Development
The biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence
 

There is no doubt that there are factors external to the family that significantly impact on a child's development.
 
Childcare
Care for children provided by either the government, an organization, or a person, while parents are at work or are away for another reason
 

Cheap childcare is very important in order to allow mother's to return to work.
 
Divorce
An official or legal process to end a marriage
 


My parents divorced when I was 15.

Divorce is very common these days.


 

Separation
An arrangement, but not necessarily done legally, by which two married people stop living together as a couple
 

Me and my partner are having a trial separation. Hopefully we can sort things out.
 
Child Neglect
A form of child abuse where there is an ongoing failure to meet a child's basic needs, such as being left without adequate food, clothes, shelter, medicine etc.
 

Social services will intervene if a child has been neglected
&

Linking structures

Using a wide range of vocabulary will help you to gain higher score at IELTS.

Listing Giving examples Generalising
firstly, secondly, thirdly for example in general
first, furthermore, finally for instance generally
to begin, to conclude as follows: on the whole
next that is as a rule
Reinforcement in this case for the most part
also namely in most cases
furthermore in other words usually
moreover Result/consequence Highlighting
what is more so in particular
in addition therefore particularly
besides as a result/consequence especially
above all accordingly mainly
as well (as) consequently Reformulation
in the same way because of this/that in other words
not only ... but also thus rather
Similarity hence to put it more simply
equally for this/that reason Expressing an alternative
likewise so that alternatively
similarly in that case rather
correspondingly under these circumstances on the other hand
in the same way Deduction the alternative is
Transition to new point then another possibility would be
now, in other words Contrast
as far as x is concerned in that case instead
with regard/reference to otherwise conversely
as for ... this implies that ... on the contrary
it follows that if so/not in contrast
turning to Stating the obvious in comparison
Summary obviously Concession (smth unexpected)
in conclusion clearly even though
to conclude naturally however
in brief of course however much
to summarise as can be expected nevertheless
overall surely still
therefore after all yet

 

 

Expressing personal opinions:

Very strong opinions:

 

Example: I would argue that computers are rather beneficial for kids.

  • In my opinion, …
  • Personally, I think that …
  • It seems to me that ...
  • I must admit that …
  • I believe/suppose that ...
  • I cannot deny that …
  • As I see it, …
  • As far as I'm concerned, …
  • I would argue that ...
  • I'd like to point out that …
  • In my experience, ...
  • I am sure that …
  • I am convinced that ...
  • I am certain that ...

 

 

Proving your arguments

Example: Consuming moderate amounts of sweets can be good for health. This is evidenced by a number of cases when people improved their health conditions by eating chocolate.

  • to attest, ...
  • to prove, ...
  • this (fact) is attested/proven by ...
  • this (fact) is evidenced by ...
  • this (fact) is testified by ...
  • this (fact) is endorsed/supported by...
  • this (evidence) establishes that ...

 

 

Expressing general point of view:

Example: It is considered that rigorous diets are very unhealthy.

  • It is (generally) claimed that …
  • It is (generally) said that …
  • It is (generally) thought that ...
  • It is (generally) considered that ...
  • A common opinion is that ...
  • A popular belief is that ...

 

 

Outlining facts

Example: It is obvious that deforestation has no positive effects.

  • The fact is that …
  • It is obvious that …
  • It is clear that …
  • There is no doubt that …
  • This proves that …

 

 

Generalizing

Example: Generally speaking, smoking is a bad habit.

  • Generally speaking, ...
  • On the whole, ...
  • Typically, ...
  • By and large ...

 

 

Giving examples

Example: A lot of wild animals are endangered. Evidence for this is proved by decreasing number of species.

  • For example, ...
  • For instance, ...
  • A good illustration of this is ...
  • Evidence for this is provided by ...
  • We can see this when ...

 

Concluding

Example: Overall, no parents should neglect their children.

  • To summarise, ...
  • In conclusion, ...
  • Overall, ...
  • On balance, ...
  • Taking everything into consideration, ...

 

Vocabulary to describe graphs

 

Introducing the graph

The graph/table/pie chart/bar chart/diagram ...

  • gives information about/on ...
  • provides information about/on ...
  • shows ...
  • illustrates ...
  • compares ...
  • explains why ...
  • describes ...
  • draws the conclusion of (a survey) ...

 

Example: The pie charts provide information on the proportion of males and females working in agricultural sector.


 

Types of changes

 

 

Nouns

a rise (of)

an increase (of)

a growth (of)

a peak (of)

a surge (of)

Example: a rise of prices

 

a fall (in)

a decrease (in)

a decline (in)

a dip (in)

Example: a fall in prices

 

a fluctuation (of)

a variation (in)

Example: a fluctuation of prices

Verbs

to rise

to increase

to surge

to grow

to peak

Large rises:

to rocket

to soar

to leap (->leapt)

 

to fall

to decrease

to decline

to dip

to dive

to plunge

Large falls:

to plummet

 

to fluctuate

to vary


 

Description of changes

 

Adverbs

sharply

suddenly

rapidly

abruptly

dramatically

significantly

considerably

markedly

wildly

Example: the prices rose sharply

 

slightly

gently

gradually

steadily

modestly

marginally

Example: the prices increased modestly

Adjectives

sharp

sudden

rapid

abrupt

dramatic

steep

significant

considerable

marked

substantial

spectacular

Example: there was a considerable growth

 

slight

gentle

gradual

steady

consistent

modest

marginal

Example: there was a gradual decline


Useful phrases

a small fraction, a small number, a small minority

a large portion, a significant majority

nearly a fifth, almost 10%, in region of 40%, more than a half, over a quarter, around two thirds, more or less three quarters, exactly one in ten, approximately a third

 

Vocabulary to write letters

Letter structure

How to start and end the letter?

  1. Formal letter

    When you don't know the recipient’s name:

    • Dear Sir … Yours faithfully
    • Dear Madam … Yours faithfully
    • Dear Sir or Madam … Yours faithfully

     

  2. When the recipient’s name is known:

    • Dear Mr Green … Yours sincerely
    • Dear Mrs Green … Yours sincerely
    • Dear Miss Green … Yours sincerely
    • Dear Ms Green … Yours sincerely

  3. Semi-formal letter

    When you are writing to a good friend or colleague:

    • Dear Jonh … Best wishes/ Best regards
    • Dear Jonh ... Many thanks

  4. Informal letter

    When you are writing to a good friend or colleague:

    • Hello Jonh … Best wishes/ Best
    • Hi Jonh … See you/ Missing you/ Love

    When you are writing to someone you love:

    • Dear Mary … Yours always/ Lots of love

 


 

Letter openings

The letter's first paragraph is letter opening. In your first paragraph you should:

  1. introduce yourself
  2. state the purpose of the letter.

 

Examples of formal letter openings:

  • I am writing to enquire about … .
  • I am writing to request ... .
  • I am writing to explain why ... .
  • I am writing to express interest in ... .
  • I am writing to inform you that/about… .
  • I am writing to complain about (the fact that I)… .
  • After having seen your advertisement in … , I would like to… .
  • After having received your address from … , I … .
  • Thank you for your letter regarding/about … .
  • In reply to your letter of 18 June, … .

Examples of informal letter openings:

  • Hi! My name is Noah and I've been assigned your drama coach… .
  • Hello, My name is Julia and I'm volunteer conducting student excursions… .
  • Hi there, I hope you're enjoying your holidays/ trip/ college year/ honeymoon… .
  • Hello, thanks very much for asking me to visit you ... .

 

Letter closings

You may need a letter closing to express gratitude, to repeat an apology, to offer help etc.

Examples of formal letter closings:

  • If you require any further information, feel free to contact me.
  • I look forward to your reply.
  • I look forward to hearing from you.
  • Once again, I apologise for any inconvenience.
  • I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.
  • I would deeply appreciate it if you could ... .
  • Thank you in advance!
  • Thanking you for your assistance in advance, I look forward to hearing from you.

Examples of informal letter closings:

  • Anyway, I‛ve got to go now. Write again if you need any more information.
  • Well, let me finish here. I am eagerly waiting for your reply to this letter.

 

IELTS Academic word list

List 1

Words 1-10

Words 11-20

Words 21-30

Words 31-40

Words 41-50

achieve 
administration 
affect 
analysis 
approach 
appropriate 
area 
aspects 
assistance 
assume

authority 
available 
benefit 
category 
community 
complex 
concerning 
conclusion 
conduct  
consequence

consistent 
constitutional 
consumer 
context 
create 
culture 
data 
definition 
destructive
discovery

distinction 
economic 
element 
environment 
error 
equation 
establish 
estimate 
evaluation 
evidence

factors 
feature 
final 
financial 
focus 
function 
global
identify 
impact 
income

Words 51-60

Words 61-70

Words 71-80

Words 81-90

Words 91-100

indicate 
individual 
injury 
investment 
involve 
issue 
item 
legal 
maintenance 
major

media 
method 
modern
normal 
obtain 
restrict 
occur 
participation 
percent
period

policy 
positive 
potential 
previous 
primary 
process 
purchase 
range 
recent
region

regulations 
relevant 
require 
research 
resident 
resources 
response 
sector 
security 
significant

similar
solution
source 
specific 
strategy 
structure 
theory
threat 
traditional 
transport

 

List 2

Words 1-10

Words 11-20

Words 21-30

Words 31-40

Words 41-50

access 
activity
alter 
alternative 
amendment 
annual 
apparent 
application
approximate 
artificial

attitude 
aware 
capacity 
challenge  
circumstance 
comment 
communication 
concentration 
conflict 
considerable

constant 
contact 
contribution 
core
correspond 
criteria 
cycle 
debate 
decline 
deduction

demonstrate 
despite 
dimension 
domestic 
dominant 
emerge 
emphasis 
enable 
energy 
enforcement

ensure 
equivalent 
evolution 
exclude 
exposure 
external 
facilitate 
fundamental 
funds 
generation

Words 51-60

Words 61-70

Words 71-80

Words 81-90

Words 91-100

hence 
hypothesis 
illustrate 
image 
immigration 
implement 
initial 
integration 
layer
legislation  

location 
logic 
marginal 
maximum 
mechanism 
medical 
mental 
modification 
negative 
network

 occupation 
option 
orientation 
outcome 
overall 
parallel 
perspective 
philosophy 
precise 
predict

project 
promote 
proportion 
psychology 
reaction 
remove 
resolution 
specify 
stability 
subsequent

sufficient 
summary 
supply 
task 
technique
technology 
transition 
trend 
version 
volume

 

List 3

Words 1-10

Words 11-20

Words 21-30

Words 31-40

Words 41-50

abstract 
accurate 
acknowledge 
adaptation 
adequate
adjust 
adult 
advocate 
aid 
attribute

author 
brief 
capable 
civil 
classical 
comprehensive  
contrary 
coordination 
couple 
decades

definite 
deny 
discrimination 
disposal 
diversity 
domain 
dynamic 
eliminate 
equipment 
estate

exceed
expansion 
expert 
fees 
flexibility 
foundation 
gender 
global 
grade 
guarantee

identical 
ignorance 
imply
incentive 
incorporated 
index 
infrastructure 
inhibition 
innovation 
instance

Words 51-60

Words 61-70

Words 71-80

Words 81-90

Words 91-100

instruction 
intelligence 
interact 
interval 
investigation 
isolated
justification 
lecture 
liberal 
migration

minimum 
monitoring 
motivation 
neutral 
obvious 
overseas 
parameter 
phenomenon 
prohibit
publish

pursue 
rational 
recovery 
reject
release 
reveal 
role 
satisfy
scope 
sequence

simulation 
solely 
somewhat 
status 
stress 
style 
substitution 
successive 
survey 
survive

sustainable 
symbolic 
topic 
trace 
transformation 
ultimate 
underline 
unique 
utility 
visible

 

List 4

Words 1-10

Words 11-20

Words 21-30

Words 31-40

Words 41-50

accommodation 
accompany
advance 
analogous 
anticipate 
appendix 
appreciate
arbitrary 
assure 
automatically

behalf 
bias 
cease 
chart 
clarity 
coherence 
coincide 
commodity 
confirm
contemporary

contradict 
controversy 
conversely 
cooperate
crucial 
currency 
denote 
detect
deviation 
device

devote 
differentiation 
diminish 
displacement 
display 
distorted 
dramatic 
duration
ethical 
eventually

exhibit 
explicit 
exploitation 
extract 
federal 
fluctuations 
format 
founded 
guidelines 
highlighted

Words 51-60

Words 61-70

Words 71-80

Words 81-90

Words 91-100

implicit 
incompatible 
induce 
inevitably 
inherent 
intensity 
intermediate 
internal 
manual 
mature

medium 
military 
mutual 
norms 
notion 
nuclear
objective 
paragraph 
passive 
perceive

portion 
precede 
predominantly 
priority 
prospect 
qualitative 
radical
random 
reinforce 
relax

revision 
revolution 
scenario 
schedule 
sphere 
suspended 
target
team 
temporary 
tension

theme 
thereby 
uniform 
validity 
vehicle 
via 
violation 
virtual 
vision 
widespread

 

List 5

Words 1-10

Words 11-20

Words 21-30

Words 31-40

Words 41-50

abandon 
abate
abrupt
accumulation 
acquisition 
adjacent 
aggregate 
albeit 
ambiguous 
ancestor

assembly 
assessment
assign
attain 
avert
coal
collapse
colleagues 
combat
commit

compile 
complement 
comprise 
conceive 
concurrent 
confined 
conform 
confuse
consciousness
convinced

creditable
deceive
depression
derive
distribution 
divergent
doubt
drastic 
election
empirical

encounter 
enhance 
enormous 
entirely
entrepreneur
erosion 
forbearance
forthcoming 
frustration
goal

Words 51-60

Words 61-70

Words 71-80

Words 81-90

Words 91-100

homogenous
inclination 
indulge
infer
initiative 
insight 
inspection 
integral 
intervention 
intrinsic

invoke 
justify
likewise 
link
manage
manipulation 
merge
nonetheless 
notwithstanding 
odd

ongoing 
overlap 
persistent 
pose 
possess
preliminary 
presumption 
ratio 
refine 
relate

reluctant 
restore 
restraint 
rigid 
route 
sacrifice
scale
so-called 
straightforward 
subordinate

substantiate
supplementary 
sympathy
termination 
transmission 
undergo 
unify 
vital
voluntary 
whereby

SpeakingSpeaking